Jumat , 30 Juli 2021
hagia sophia

Hagia Sophia Akhirnya Kembali Menjadi Masjid

PRESIDEN Turki akhirnya resmi mengubah status Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia) dari museum menjadi masjid. Presiden Turki Recep Tayyip Erdogan telah menandatangani dekrit yang menjadi dasar hukum pengubahan status bangunan berusia 1.500 tahun yang dulunya Gereja Katedral itu, Jumat 10 Juli 2020.

Pengadilan sebelumnya membatalkan bahwa status museum bangunan ikonik tersebut yang memungkinkan situs budaya dunia ini dialihfungsikan menjadi masjid.

Sebenarnya ini bukanlah kali pertama Hagia Sophia diubah menjadi masjid. Sebelum jadi museum, Hagia Sophia adalah Katedral. Kemudian diubah menjadi masjid ketika Kekhalifahan Utsmaniyah atau Kekaisaran Ottoman merebut kota Istanbul pada 1453. Waktu berlalu, pada 1934 bangunan megah ini diubah menjadi museum.

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Dengan penetapan Hagia Sophia yang telah menjadi masjid, umat Islam di Turki baru dapat melangsungkan salat mulai 24 Juli 2020. Namun, sebelum ditetapkan menjadi masjid, Hagia Sophia memiliki sejarah panjang.

Pada zaman Kekaisaran Byzantium, Masjid ini merupakan sebuah gereja. Ketika Sultan Muhammad Al-Fatih (Mehmed II) merebut Konstantinopel (Istanbul) dari kekuasaan Kekaisaran Byzantium pada 1453, dia mengubah bangunan itu menjadi masjid.

Kala itu sejumlah fasilitas ditambahkan untuk mendukung kegiatan ibadah, seperti mimbar, mihrab, air untuk wudhu, menara, sampai pondok Sultan. Fasilitas tersebut masih dapat kita lihat sampai saat ini.

Akan tetapi, status masjid megah ini kembali diubah pada tahun 1943. Tepatnya pada masa kepemimpinan Presiden Mustafa Kemal yang beraliran nasionalis sekuler. Saat itu, Mustafa kemal akhirnya menetapkannya sebagai museum.

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Wacana mengembalikannya fungsi sebagai masjid sendiri dimulai kembali pada tahun 2005. Selama 15 tahun itu, terjadi perdebatan dalam pembahasan usulan tersebut sebelum akhirnya pengadilan mengetok palunya pada 2020 ini.

Bangunan ini sempat menjadi bangunan dengan kubah terbesar yang ada di dunia. Dahulu kubahnya memiliki ketinggian 160 meter dengan diameter 40 meter namun roboh pada tahun 558. Kubah kemudian dibangun kembali setinggi 55 meter.

Hagia Sophia terkenal memiliki interior yang indah nan megah. Ada hiasan kaligrafi Allah yang berdampingan dengan lukisan Bunda Maria. Selain itu ada pula lukisan Yesus yang bersebelahan tepat dengan kaligrafi Al-Quran. Melalui interior ini, dapat terlihat perpaduan unik dari dua agama.

Karena sejarah dan keunikannya itu, ditetapkan lah sebagai Warisan Dunia oleh UNESCO. Seiring berjalannya waktu, Hagia Sophia juga menjadi salah satu tempat wisata yang populer dikunjungi wisatawan di Istanbul, Turki.

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